Sustainable large-scale energy storage in Egypt


Start date: 1 August, 2022 End date: 31 July, 2025 Project type: Research projects in countries with targeted development cooperation (earlier Window 2) Project code: 21-M13-DTU Countries: Egypt Thematic areas: Climate change, Energy, Lead institution: Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Denmark Partner institutions: The American University in Cairo (AUC), Egypt Alfa Laval Copenhagen A/S, Denmark Zewail City of Science and Technology, Egypt Engineering for the Petroleum & Process Industries (ENPPI), Egypt New and Renewable Energy Authority, Egypt Project website: go to website (the site might be inactive) Project coordinator: Fredrik Haglind Total grant: 4,997,128 DKK

Project summary

The increased penetration of fluctuating renewable energy sources, including primarily wind and solar energy, causes imbalance between supply and demand of energy, reduced capacity margins and congestion of electricity networks. One of the more promising options to mitigate the variability of renewable energy sources is to use large-scale energy storage systems based on the liquid air energy storage technology. The project aims at providing the scientific, technological and policy basis required for the development and implementation of large-scale energy storage in Egypt, enabling increased penetration of renewable energy sources in the Egyptian energy system. In order to achieve the project targets, the major research efforts will be dedicated to (i) analyse and optimise the liquid air energy storage system to achieve an optimal design, (ii) investigate hybridisation of the liquid air energy storage system with concentrated solar energy and the district cooling system of the New Cairo city to obtain high round trip efficiency, (iii) perform multi-dimensional numerical analyses of packed-bed rock hot and cold thermal energy storage systems, optimising their thermal-hydraulic performances, (iv) conduct multi-dimensional numerical and experimental analysis of two-phase turbo-expanders for the liquefaction process, supporting an efficient design of the charging cycle and a high round trip efficiency of the liquid air energy storage system, (v) analyse the impact of liquid air energy storage technology in the Egyptian energy system using energy system network modelling, supporting the decarbonisation of the Egyptian energy system, (vi) analyse policy measures enabling widespread integration of large-scale energy storage in Egypt.

The project brings together leading universities and companies from Egypt and Denmark, the New and Renewable Energy Authority, Egypt and UNEP Africa office and provides a solution that is urgently needed in many regions worldwide. The successful completion of the project will support Egyptian Government’s target of 42 % supply of electricity from renewable energy sources by 2030 and the national priority area of building a climate-resilient green economy. In addition, the project contribute to the achievement of the following United Nations Sustainable Development Goals: affordable and clean energy (Goal 7), industry, innovation and infrastructure (Goal 9), sustainable cities and communities (Goal 11), and climate action (Goal 13).


First year report
From administrational perspective, a project website and a data management plan were created. In addition, a communication and engagement plan was developed, and a steering committee was formed. As far as dissemination is concerned, an overview of the project was presented at the DFC Alumni Event on 13 October 2022 in Cairo, Egypt, and several meetings were held with the Danish Embassy in Cairo, Egypt.

Numerical models for the liquid air energy storage system and its components were developed, and the analysis of hybridisation with concentrating solar energy and district cooling was initiated within the field of system analysis (work package 2). Also the work with developing models for optimization of liquid air energy storage systems was initiated. As far as the component design (work package 3) is concerned, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses of two-phase flow in a nozzle were completed and the results were presented at a prestigious international conference (ASME Turbo Expo 2023). A one-dimensional numerical model for the cold storage was completed and the influence of the cold storage design on the liquid air energy storage performance was investigated. The results of the analysis were presented at a prestigious international conference (ECOS 2023). The work on multi-dimensional analysis of the cold storage and the mean-line modelling of two-phase expansion in cryogenic turbo-expanders were initiated. In the field of energy system impact analysis (work package 4), the development of a long term energy model for the electricity grid was commenced.


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