Sanitation Monitoring and Evaluation

Start date: 17 January, 2012 End date: 28 February, 2012 Project type: Master's Thesis (prior to 2018) Project code: A15043 Countries: Ghana Institutions: University of Copenhagen (UCPH), Denmark Grant recipient: Ana Fried Total grant: 15,000 DKK


The main objective of this master thesis is to investigate how global sanitation is
currently monitored, the weaknesses of available data, and the present challenges of monitoring sanitation behaviour in rapidly urbanising settings, using an example from Ghana. In order to undertake the task of reporting the challenges this study will compare existing global models for sanitation monitoring and evaluation, and describe theirapplicability. Sanitation actors and data flow in a peri-urban location of Ghana will be mapped in order to identify the obstacles in data collection, sharing and usability of results.

A qualitative research strategy was used to capture the relationship between monitoring and evaluation theory, research and practice. Information on global sanitation monitoring and evaluation models was collected through: a literature review and interviews with international sanitation experts; and from the local context through: interviews with Ghanaian national experts and stakeholders involved in sanitation projects. This triangulation approach reinforced findings and interpretations, increased credibility and reliability, thereby enhancing the validity of results. Ethics were strongly considered throughout the duration of the study and care was taken with regard to informed consent and participant rights. Ethical approval was received from both the University of Copenhagen under the Sustainable Sanitation Solutions Ghana project and the Dodowa Health Research Centre, Ghana.

The literature review describes monitoring and evaluation models: basic research,
logical framework, results based management, project lifecycle and participatory
monitoring and evaluation. These models are implemented in the sanitation sector for different purposes, with varying indicators, data collection tools and monitoring
information software technologies. In Ghana, data flow mapping depicts barriers in data collection and sharing including: indicators and definitions, data dissemination, project based monitoring, monitoring information software, urban-rural gap, and participatory monitoring and evaluation. The uses of sanitation data discussed, in the Ghanaian context, are: policy development; funding, planning and accountability for projects; as 4 well as to provide coverage estimates. Mobile phone technology and an adaptation of Community Led Total Sanitation are innovations in the sector which may improve data capture in rapidly urbanising settings.

Various monitoring and evaluation models are implemented for sanitation data
collecting. These often overlap with methodologies and results which are not
harmonised. Sanitation data flow globally and in Ghana is complex; it involves actors from different administrative levels, includes the public and private sectors, and demonstrates a clear divide between rural and urban settings. Indicators currently used result in a gap in available data because they do not effectively represent behaviour, practices or issues of equity related to human waste disposal, particularly in the dynamic settings of rapidly urbanising townships. The lack of harmonised monitoring and evaluation methods for sanitation data collection are a potentially significant waste of money which is not only a considerable burden for national partner governments and development partners, but also limits progress in improving global sanitation practices.