Urban and peri-urban livestock farming pose immense threat to public health, environment, animal health and welfare. The pilot phase provided significant findings, however, some impact-bearing tasks have not been accomplished in the pilot phase.
The pilot project did not study in detail the understanding of urban reaction to livestock production including perception of problems by the producers, perception of problems by the city dwellers and the perception of problems by city rulers. This information is important in influencing livestock policy changes regarding urban livestock farming.
The pilot project identified major challenges in animal waste disposal, but the actual quantities and economic use of the waste discharged, and the associated biological and chemical problems are not known. It is important to assess this, including the environmental and public health burdens associated with animal wastes before proper planning on management of animal wastes can be made.
The pilot project also did not dwell in mitigation measures of biological problems related to urban livestock production. It is necessary to look at transmission ways for pathogens, and ways of correction of chemical problems related to urban livestock production including toxic substances such as acaricides, antibimicrobials and other pollutants from animal wastes.
In addition to the basic information on perceptions towards animals welfare human attitudes towards animals established in the pilot phase of the project, more information is needed with regards to welfare of individual animals in the farms, during transportation and at slaughter. Further animal welfare as well as social studies is needed to understand which methods can be used to improve awareness and attitudes towards animals and their welfare.
Project completion report:
Mitigation studies have shown that number of harmful bacteria can be reduced in manure by simply piling up in air and in four weeks manure is safe to touch. This was proved by using bacteria found in manure. Another important observation is that even bacteria that are resistant to some antibiotics are killed by this procedure.
Brief popularized abstract:
The main purpose of the project was to mitigate the negative environmental and health impacts and improve production of livestock farming in urban and Peri-urban environment of Tanzania. The project found that despite potential health risk and being a cause of social conflict manure can be used as a source of income to people and be used to fertilize fields intended for crop production. Manure treatment can be done at a small scale at a cheaper cost and allow minimization of likely pathogens to affect human beings and the environment. New insights are needed on the risk of antimicrobial use in animals, which is envisaged to add to antimicrobial resistance to bacterial affecting human beings. Disposal and misuse of antimicrobials intended for human use need to be looked upon in order to solve this complex issue. Apart from delays in the inception, the other challenge was returning of the Social science study scholarship by two female students. It was difficult to get substitute students because of small number of females ready for PhD studies. The project has opened an area for new research and two proposals have been submitted.