Mobility grant of Ms Nita Rukminasari
InfoStart date: 31 January, 2020 End date: 30 October, 2020 Project type: Mobility Grant project Project code: 19-MG07AU Countries: Indonesia Thematic areas: Waste management, Lead institution: Aarhus University (AU), Department of Environmental Science, Denmark Hasanuddin University (UNHAS), Indonesia Project coordinator: Marianne Thomsen Total grant: 168,600 DKK
Our proposed project for this mobility program is Assessing the potency of seaweed waste biomass from carrageenan industry for bioethanol production. I will conduct this proposed project with Prof. Marianne Thomsen, Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University. Seaweed or macroalga is a multicellular photosynthetic organism and a potential biomass resource for the full or partial substitution and displacement of terrestrial biomass to produce sustainable biofuels and biochemical products (Jung et al., 2013). Compared with terrestrial plants, seaweed is three to four times more able to grow and convert solar energy to chemical energy and higher than 11 and 4.5 fold on yield and dry weight, respectively. Seaweed also has a potential bioethanol volume of 23,400 L/ha/year, whereas that of terrestrial plants is less than 1010 L/ha/year (Adams et al, 2009). There is still limited utilization of seaweed waste biomass from the carrageenan industry (SWBC). The advantages of SWBC feedstock are that it does not compete with food staples, it reduces or minimizes pollutant loading and it increases the added value of the main product from the carrageenan industry (Bixler and Porse, 2011). To produce refined carrageenan, seaweed as a raw material, should be treated with 1-10% alkali solution such as NaOH or KOH at 80oC for 0.5 - 5h (Azevedo et al., 2013). Alkaline treatment converts the precursor moieties in the galactan backbone, L/D-galactose-6-sulphate, to 3,6-anhydrogalactose, which can increase the gel strength of the seaweed extract (Hoffmann et al., 1995). Seaweed extraction without alkali therefore produces a weak carrageenan gel strength (Freile-Pelegrín et al. 2006; Azevedo et al., 2013). After extraction, the slurry extraction is screened using a filter press to separate the solid and liquid fractions. The liquid fraction, which contains mostly carrageenan, is precipitated with excess ethanol. In this step, the range of carrageenan yields is 31.8 - 43.2% (Freile-Pelegrín et al. kminasari Approximately 60 - 70% will therefore be the resultant solid fraction that is known as SWBC. SWBC is presumed to contain high concentrations of carbohydrates, which have high potential for use as biofuel feed- stock or other biochemical products (Uju et al., 2015).
South Sulawesi is the highest production of seaweed in Indonesia. The most contribution for this production comes from brown algae (Kappaphycus alvarezy) that produce carragenan. There are several seaweed industries at South Sulawesi that produce carrageenan. However, there is lack of research regarding utilization seaweed waste biomass from carrageenan industry. Based on this reason, it is important to conduct a study for assessing the potency of seaweed waste biomass for bioethanol production.